Martin Delany and Frederick Douglass

History often repeats itself. Some consider Frederick Douglass as a harbinger of Martin Luther King. If this be so, then Delany could be considered the forerunner of Malcolm X. Yet, because Delany’s movement was not peaceful and because he advocated leaving America, Delany is not as well-known. Moreover, some submit, that the real Frederick Douglass is known only to a few as his militant side is often eclipsed by his peaceful rhetoric. Yet, these two were not enemies but were friends and they collaborated overtly and covertly toward a common goal. Although white abolitionists embraced Douglass, Delany, like Malcolm X…

Insurrection at the Capitol. By Tyler Merbler from USA — DSC09523–2, CC BY 2.0,

On January 6, 2021, an angry mob stormed the Capitol building in Washington DC. They were self-proclaimed patriots with the intent of hanging the Vice President, killing the Speaker of the House and harming other members of Congress. This mob consisted of Trump supporters and included a coalition of Evangelical Christians, members of law enforcement, former members of the military, white supremacists, QAnon members, and ordinary citizens united in their goal to stop the certification of the election. In the minds of these seditious insurrectionists, they were upholding the Constitution that stood as the nation’s palladium for over two centuries…

Former President Barack Obama, First Lady Michelle Obama, and former Presidents Jimmy Carter and Bill Clinton walk past the statue of President Abraham Lincoln to participate in the ceremony on the 50th anniversary of the historic March on Washington and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s “I Have a Dream” speech

In the aftermath of the Civil War, America was left to consider the sacrifices made and why God continued to shed His grace on thee. And so, the nation rallied around the man that saved the Union and who once again made us “One Nation Under God.” In a strange way, Lincoln was a savior, perhaps not of mankind, but an ideal of freedom and the preservation of the Union. It was in search of such ideals that immigrants flocked to the shores of America at the turn of the 20th century.

The 1920 Duluth, Minnesota lynchings. Two of the black victims are still hanging while the third is on the ground. Postcards of lynchings were popular souvenirs in the U.S

The more things change, the more they remain the same. From 1882 to 1968, 3, 446 blacks were lynched in America. Sad but true, George Floyd’s death is just one of many troubling and pervasive sagas in American history. Black lives have never truly mattered and some whites subconsciously and overtly believe that “it ain’t bloodshed unless its white blood being shed.”

Not only black lives, but neither does black opinion matter until it is embraced by white people. Black athletes tried to bring attention to the chronic problem of police brutality, but their peaceful protests were scorned and deemed…

Respiratory droplets, produced when a man is sneezing

Some of the major problems confronting us in the battle against COVID-19 are: the supply of ventilators and Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) along with the staffing and infection of doctors and nurses. With the number of COVID-19 cases increasing exponentially around the world, we must develop alternative ways to combat this deadly contagious disease while minimizing risks to doctors, nurses and the general public.

To this end, we should move toward a distributive medical process that places more emphasis on the use of emerging technologies. …

From left to right, the three largest are: the Pyramid of Menkaure, the Pyramid of Khafre and the Great Pyramid of Khufu. By Ricardo Liberato — All Gizah Pyramids, CC BY-SA 2.0,

When we think of Ancient Egypt, we often think of the age of the pharaohs, of biblical stories of its greatness and its oppression of Jews. In recent times, however, many scholars revisited its history based on excavations, stories and history written in their native tongue to extract the truth from myth and hyperbole. For instance, it has been reported on numerous occasions that Jewish slaves built the pyramids, but this is untrue.

The pyramids were built centuries before Abraham’s trip to Egypt and over a thousand years before Moses. Moreover, they were not built by slaves, but rather, using…

The Sphinx: Taken by the uploader, w:es:Usuario:Barcex, CC BY-SA 3.0,

The Pyramids and the Sphinx stand as monuments of time in a land known for its antiquity. When Napoleon visited the Pyramids, it was two-thousand years after Alexander the Great’s trip which was two-thousand years after they were built. The Pyramids of Egypt are the only standing monuments of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Egypt, however, is about more than pyramids. It is a land of mystery, of obscure origin that has captivated the world for almost five thousand years.

Ancient Egypt (often referred to as the gift of the Nile) was a gift to humanity bequeathed to…

The Arab Slave Trade

The annals of antiquity are full of stories about slavery as if it was a natural condition of humankind. Notwithstanding, when we think of slavery today, we often think of the African slave trade. However, slavery at its core is not about race, it’s about indifference. The African slave trade is just one chapter in a book of Man’s inhumanity toward Man. A book that proves the adage that (Homō hominī lupus) man is the wolf of man.

Arab Slave Trade

Much attention has been drawn to the Trans-Atlantic slave trade but not much has been given to the Arab slave trade that…

Anne Vallayer-Coster, Attributes of Music, 1770. This still life painting depicts a variety of French Baroque musical instruments

Music has been around perhaps as long as man’s consciousness. However, it wasn't until Pythagoras (570–495) quantified the rules of music that the system enjoyed in the Western world was developed. Building on the foundation laid by Pythagoras, we have uncovered not only its intrinsic beauty but the mathematics that lies beneath it.

The Development of Scales

There are many legends told about the Greek philosopher, mathematician and polymath Pythagoras best known for his Pythagorean Theorem in Mathematics. Although we attribute several things to him, many scholars believe his discoveries are the product of the Pythagorean School or perhaps were known in other parts…

Pushkin exam at lyceum, given to those that espouse excellence in the Russian language

Before Richard Wright and James Baldwin, Zora Neale Hurston and Toni Morrison and other African American writers of the 20th century, there were black writers of distinction of which any race would be proud. Chief among them were Alexander Dumas (1802-1870) and Alexander Pushkin (1799–1837). Both men were the progeny of black generals that displayed extraordinary prowess and ingenuity on the battlefield. General Thomas-Alexander Dumas (1762–1806) served under Napoleon and Abraham Hannibal (1670–1761) served under Peter the Great.

Thomas Alexander Dumas

Thomas Alexander Dumas was the father of Alexander Dumas and the son of a black woman, Marie Louise Labouret, and Thomas-Alexandre Davy…

Richard Lawson Singley

Author, educator, historian, former engineer at General Electric. Interested in the origins of all things. Author of A New Perspective

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